Root Cause Analysis

FAC Failed Tube Metallurgical Analysis

Knowing the fundamental causes leading to failure is essential to make the right steps to mitigate the risk of the failure repeating.  Tetra Engineering calls on an interdisciplinary team to assess the failure (or degradation) and determine the root cause.

The assessment may include:

  • Operational Data Review
  • Metallurgical Examination in a laboratory
  • Mechanical Testing
  • Chemical and Fuel Analysis
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy
  • Finite Element
  • Boiler Process Modelling

Related and follow-up services for remediation may include fitness-for-service (FFS) or remaining life assessment, as needed.  

The underlying objective is to “use” the failure as an opportunity to improve operational practices or identify potential design problems and thereby ensure long-term reliability of the steam cycle.

See short flyer.


Chemical Analysis

For the analysis of boiler water/steam-side deposits, gas-side deposits, material composition and other needs, Tetra employs the services of leading chemical laboratories for services such as Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Other services are also available upon request.

Repair Weld Specification

When a repair is required and welding is needed to return the component into service, requirements for the heating cycle for different Grade materials can be complex and challenging.  Tetra Engineering can provide advice or review on Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), preheat, bake-out and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) for all the common and uncommon boiler pressure part steel grades. 

See our Third Party Engineering and Consulting page for more details.



Metallurgical Analysis

In partner with leading experts, Tetra Engineering provides metallurgical analysis services for its clients needing the information that non-destructive examination (NDE) can not provide.  Services depend on individual needs but typically include:

  • Macro-photography; Fractography; Metallography; SEM
  • Fatigue, Creep, Hardness and Tensile Testing

Tetra uses its many years of experience in Steam Generation technology to interpret the results in the context of your plant's configuration and operation.

About Us

Established in 1989, Tetra Engineering has more than 25 years experience providing solutions to the power industry. We specialize in solutions for HRSGs, conventional boilers & steam-cycle balance of plant.


Our Locations

Offices in: Connecticut, USA; Nice, France; Dubai, UAE.